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Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Greek Pizza

This is a very simple, and elegant dish. It's colorful, full of flavor and textures. It is also a whole meal, hearty and filling. The best part is that this takes less than half an hour to put together. I orginally ate a version of this at a friend's place. She was inspired by a pita pizza she had eaten at a restaurant and wanted to try it out. I have taken the concept and used the same base, but created a Greek salad to top the pizza.  This recipe makes about four to five pita pizzas. This can be used as an appetizer recipe too or finger food for a party. Just cut the pita into slices and serve.

4-5 pita rounds
1 cup hummus
4-5 greek olives, diced
2 cucumbers, diced
1 cup baby spinach leaves
1 tomato, diced
1 cup sweet bell pepper mix, diced (yellow/red/orange)
1 tbsp olive oil
1 tsp dried oregano
1/4 onion, sliced
salt to taste
1/8 tsp black pepper
1 lemon, juiced
2-3 tbsp feta cheese, crumbled

Mix together the diced cucumber, bell pepper mix, onion and olives. In a bowl, mix the olive oil, oregano and lemon juice. Pour this over the vegetable mixture. Add the salt and pepper and mix all the ingredients together. Heat the pita bread on a flat pan so that they become a little crisp. Apply a layer of hummus  over the pita bread round. Then spread a layer of the vegetables. Add some spinach leaves over the pita and then sprinkle some feta cheese. Eat this as soon as you have added all the layers, else the base will become soggy.

You can use a flavored hummus to add more flavors to the recipe. Dice all the vegetables in similar sized cubes.

Sunday, December 26, 2010

Apple Cobbler

Hope you all had a great Christmas and spent some quality time with your loved ones. We spent a nice relaxing day with friends and good food. There were several challenges putting this year's potluck menu together and we finally decided to have an assortment of food. I must say it was one of the healthiest and tastiest meal that I have eaten in a while. I decided to make the salad and dessert. The challenge was to come up with a dessert that would be easy to make, yet tasty. I considered several recipes and finally my husband suggested that I should make my apple cobbler recipe. After forty minutes, the cobbler was ready and the house was smelling of apples and cinnamon, adding the perfect touch to the holiday ambience. I must add that the recipe was a tremendous success and we didn't have any leftovers.

2 apples, cored and diced into small pieces
1 tsp baking powder
1 cup all purpose flour
1 cup sugar
1 cup whole milk
3/4 stick/cup butter
1/8 tsp cinnamon powder
1/8 tsp salt
2-3 graham crackers, crushed into coarse crumbs

Preheat the oven to 350 F. Add the butter to your baking pan and place it in the oven. While the butter melts, mix together the flour, sugar, baking powder, cinnamon powder and salt. Then add the milk in and whisk it all together. Add this to the melted butter in the pan and mix it together. Then add the apple slices and fold it into the batter. Sprinkle a layer of the graham crumbs over this to completely cover top of the pan. Bake this for 30-40 minutes. Take a knife and insert it into the center of the cake. If it comes out clean then the cake is ready. If not, bake for a few more minutes. Serve warm.

Cut the apples when you have measured all your ingredients and are ready to work on the recipe. If you cut the apples well in advance, the slices will turn brown due to oxidation and lose some texture. Do not over beat the mixture after adding the milk to the flour. You can serve it warm with some vanilla ice cream.

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Aamti - Maharashtrian Sweet and Sour Dal

Most of the spicy dal preparations are called aamti in Maharashtra. Though when I talk about Aamti, I am referring to the sweet and sour dal preparation. Of course, this changes from home to home, however the basic theme of adding something sweet and sour stays the same. My mom makes this frequently and I enjoy eating it with hot chapati and ghee. Since it is a sweet and sour dish, it is generally quite popular with kids and a great way to get them to eat their protein. Healthy and tasty, the perfect combination for an everyday meal. The lentil/legume used in the recipe is known by many different names, some of those that I am familiar with are "tur, toor, tuvar, arhar, and split pigeon pea". It can be easily found at any store that sells Indian groceries.

1 cup tur/toor dal
3-4 cups water
1/8 tsp turmeric powder
couple of pinches of asafoetida
1 tbsp oil
1/8 tsp cumin/jeera
1/8 tsp mustard
1-2 chillies, diced into large pieces
6-7 curry leaves
salt to taste
1 tbsp jaggery powder or 1 inch piece of jaggery (adjust to taste)
1 tsp tamarind paste
1 tsp goda masala
1/2 inch piece ginger piece

Wash the tur dal a couple of times. To this addtwo cups of water, a pinch of asafoetida and turmeric. Pressure cook it till it is cooked completely. Mash the cooked dal and keep aside. In a pot, add the oil. Add the mustard and cumin seeds. Once the mustard crackles, add a pinch of asafoetida, chillies and the mashed dal. Add a cup of water, curry leaves, ginger, salt and goda masala. Boil this for a few minutes, then add the tamarind and jaggery. Cook for another few minutes. Add more water if required. Serve with white rice or hot chapati.

To make tamarind paste, take an inch piece of tamarind, soak in a couple of tbsps of warm water for a few minutes and then squeeze out the pulp. Use the pulp and tamarind water. If you do not have goda masala, substitute with dhana-jeera/corriander-cumin powder. If you are using a jaggery piece, make sure that it has completely dissolved.

Monday, December 13, 2010

Karlya Che Kaap - Bitter Gourd Chips

Karela/Karala/Bitter Gourd, are all names for a green color gourd which has a spiny skin and tastes very bitter. It is supposed to have medicinal value and I have heard that it  helps reduce blood sugar levels. Surprisingly, although it is so bitter, it tastes great when it is cooked. Though, I must note here that it is an acquired taste for most people. As a kid, I used to enjoy the fried version. This dish definitely certifies that everything tastes great when fried, even something so bitter!! Eventually I developed a taste for other gravy preparations too. Bitter gourd is definitely something you should try if you haven’t and start off with the fried version.

1/8 tsp mustard seeds
1/8 tsp jeera/cumin seeds
4-5 bitter gourds, diced into thin slices
1 spoon of sugar
¼ tsp mango powder/amchur
salt to taste
2-3 green chillies, slit lengthwise
8-10 curry leaves
2 tbsp oil

Heat the oil in a flat open pan. Add the mustard and cumin seeds. Once the mustard seeds begin to crackle, add the chilli, curry leaves and then the bitter gourd slices. Stir well and let it cook till the slices are well fried. Since we are not deep frying it, it will take about 30 minutes on medium heat for the slices to get crisp. They will turn brown. Then season with mango powder, salt and sugar. Serve with chapati.

To reduce the bitterness, apply salt over the bitter gourd slices and keep aside for 10-15 minutes. They will release a lot of water, then rinse these slices and pat them dry. You can also peel away the larger spines, before slicing. Cook it in an open large pan. This will help the slices to brown faster and get they will get the crisp fried texture.

Sunday, December 12, 2010

Egg Curry

Egg Curry is a dish which always reminds me of Dad. He introduced me to eggs and how tasty the various preparations could be. It’s funny how I associate the dish with Dad though it was Mom who always made it. I made this quite frequently as a student and a few friends came to associate this dish with me. So whenever it was my turn to cook, this dish was often requested. I generally make a lot of gravy with it and serve it with some white rice. It tastes great with some hot chapati too. Add a side salad of onions, green chillies and it is a wonderful meal. This dish tends to taste better after a few hours or the next day when the eggs have had some time to absorb the spices.

2 tbsps oil
2 black cardamoms
2 bay leaves
2 cloves
1 red onion, diced
2 tomatoes, diced
red chilli powder to taste
1-2 tsp garam masala (add 2 tsp for spicier taste)
3 cloves of garlic, chopped
1/2 inch ginger, grated/crushed
3 or 4 hard boiled eggs, sliced into two along the length of the egg
1-2 cups water
salt to taste

In a pan, heat the oil and add the cardamom, cloves and the bay leaves to the oil, fry till you can smell the aroma, but take care not to burn them. Add the onion, ginger and garlic. Fry this till the onion is well browned. Ideally, cook this on a medium heat setting and fry the onions till you see a little oil being released. Then add the tomatoes, and cook till the tomatoes are browned. Add garam masala, red chilli powder and cook for another minute. Then add the water. Add salt. Boil this till the gravy thickens to your liking. Gently, slide in the eggs to the gravy. Boil the gravy for a few minutes with the eggs, so that the eggs absorb the spices. Serve hot with white rice or chapati.

The eggs should be hard boiled, so that the yolk does not run into the gravy. When stirring the gravy take care to not damage the egg halves. If you want to adjust the seasoning, scoop out the egg pieces, stir the gravy and then add them back in. If the eggs are boiled in the gravy, they get well marinated and tasty.
To reheat, if possible do not use the microwave, as eggs tend to burst. You can scoop out the egg pieces, heat the gravy for a longer time till it is piping hot. Then, heat the eggs for about 30 seconds in the microwave and add them back to the gravy.

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Nariyal Barfi - Coconut Burfi/ Coconut Fudge

Hope you are having a festive week, with Halloween followed by Diwali. As the celebrations wind down, I am going to add one more easy recipe which can be made for any festive occasion or as a dessert. This is a very simple recipe and very tasty.  This was a last minute addition to my Diwali spread this year and I made it just about an hour before guests arrived. What makes this recipe appealing is that it takes under 15 minutes for the entire cooking process.

2 cups fresh coconut - grated/scraped (if using frozen, thaw it)
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup heavy whipping cream
1/8 tsp cardamom powder

Heat the coconut and sugar in a pan. The sugar will melt and turn into syrup. As the mixture starts to thicken, add the cream and cardamom powder. Stir frequently so that the mixture doesn't burn. Heat this mixture, till it is thick enough, so that when you move a spoon through it, you can see the base of the pan. In the meanwhile, grease a tin or dish with some ghee or butter. Then pour the mixture in a greased pan. Use a spatula to spread this or you can use the base of a small bowl. Grease the base of the bowl with some ghee, so that the coconut mixture doesn't stick to the base. Once it has cooled down a little and is warm to touch, cut it into small squares.  Once it has completely cooled down, you can separate the squares. Store it in the fridge.

You can scrape/grate a coconut and freeze this in an airtight bag/box for about 6-8 weeks. After you scrape the coconut, heat it for a minute in the microwave or on the stove till you can smell the coconut aroma. Then cool it and freeze it. This helps preserve the coconut for a longer period.

Thursday, November 4, 2010

Chilli Tofu

This recipe is based on the chilli paneer recipe, however I modified it based on the ingredients I had on hand. The way this came about was that I was thinking of a way to use tofu and wanted to use the bell pepper that I had in the fridge. After thinking of various options I thought of chilli paneer and decided to substitute tofu for the paneer. I must say it worked well. It is definitely a healthier dish too and a good stir fry variation. This is perfect served with some white rice.

1 packet of extra firm tofu, sliced into rectangular strips (1*1/2 inch strips)
1 green bell pepper, sliced into strips similar in size to the tofu strips
1 yellow onion, sliced
2-3 garlic cloved, finely chopped
1-2 green chillies, sliced (adjust to taste)
salt to taste
1-3 tbsp white vinegar
1/2 cup water
3-4 tbsp corn starch/corn flour
1 tbsp soy sauce
chilli sauce to taste
1 tbsp oil
1/2 tsp sesame oil
1/2 tsp black pepper, ground

Mix 2 tbsp of corn flour,  black pepper and salt. Coat the tofu strips in this flour. Add 1 tbsp oil to a non stick pan and saute the strips till slightly browned.
In another pan, heat the oil, to it add onion and garlic. Cook the onion till transluscent. Add the chillies and bell pepper strips, stir fry for a couple of minutes. Then add the sauteed tofu strips to the pan. Make a slurry of corn flour and water and add it to the pan. Add more water if required. As the corn flour cooks, the gravy will become transparent. To this add soy sauce and vinegar. Add salt to taste. Add a few drops of the chilli sauce. Cook for a couple of minutes. Serve hot with rice.

Add less amounts of soy sauce, vinegar and chilli sauce to begin with. Taste the gravy and adjust these components based on your preference. Add a little water to the corn flour to dissolve it, and then add additional water so that lumps are not created. Stir well after adding it to the pan to avoid lumps.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Dal Makhani - Spicy Lentil

Dal Makhani is one of my favorite dals. I remember watching the cook at a "dhaba" in Delhi prepare this. It was a long time ago, but I still remember watching in surprise as he added an entire packet of 100 gram butter to just our order of dal, and it tasted fabulour. I remember the rich taste and it tasted heavenly with hot tandoori roti and some onions. Now, my version is definitely not as rich as the authentic one, but I promise you it's just as tasty. This is a recipe that I make on days when I need to prepare a quick but wholesome meal. I use whole lentils/ masoor dal for my quick, low calorie version instead of whole urad. Since masoor is a lentil variety which doesn't need to be pre-soaked, and cooks in about 15 minutes in the the pressure cooker, it doesn't need advance preparation. Serve it with some rice or naan or bread and it makes a complete meal.

2 tbsps oil or ghee
2 black cardamoms
1 green cardamom
1 bay leaf
1 red onion, diced
2 tomatoes, diced
red chilli powder to taste
1-2 tsp garam masala (add 2 tsp for spicier taste)
3 cloves of garlic, chopped
1/2 inch ginger, grated/crushed
1 cup lentils/whole masoor dal
2 cups water
salt to taste
additional water as needed

Add the water and one garlic clove to the dal cook in the pressure cooker. In another pan, heat the oil and add the two types of cardamom and the bay leaf to the oil, fry till you can smell the aroma, but take care not to burn them. Add the onion, ginger and garlic. Fry this till the onion is well browned. Then add the tomatoes, and cook till the tomatoes are browned. Add garam masala, red chilli powder and cook for another minute. Then add the cooked dal to the pan, stir. Add water if the dal is too thick. Add salt. Serve hot with naan or white rice.

If you want a richer version, cook it in ghee and add butter towards the end of the cooking process.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Shakkar Pare/Shankar Pali/ Sweet Fries

I hope you had a great Halloween. I was glad it fell on a weekend. We carved pumpkins, went trick or treating and handed out candies to the neighborhood kids. Every Halloween I realize that there are so  many kids in the community. I guess it's the one occassion when they all come out in hordes. We had a great time. Now Diwali is right around the corner and I am waiting for it eagerly. I am going to add another Diwali staple recipe today- "Shakkar Pare/Shankarpali". These are loved by everyone at home. Every year I contemplate whether I should make it, but it always makes its way to the top of the wish list. A friend had given me the basic recipe which I have experimented with for the last couple of years. This is an easy recipe, except for the fact that its time consuming to fry all the little shakkar pare. But it's totally worth it.

1/2 -1 cup clarified butter/ghee
1 cup sugar
1 cup milk
all purpose flour/ maida - enough to knead dough
oil to fry

Mix together the ghee, sugar and milk. Add 1/4 cup of flour at a time till you can knead it into a dough. The dough should be firm. It should not be soft, else it will absorb a lot of oil when you fry it. Roll out about a 2-3 inch ball of dough into a round of about 2-3 mm thickness. The rolled out dough shouldn't be so  thin that its transparent. If its too thin, the fried shakkar pare/shankarpali will be hard. Then cut the rolled out dough into diamond shaped shakkar pare/shankarpali. Heat the oil and then fry all the shakkar pare/shankarpali till they are well browned. Let it cool and store in an airtight container. These will last a couple of weeks and do not need to be stored in the fridge.

I have experimented with various proportions of ghee and also substituted oil for ghee, but the best results are obtained when you use equal measures of ghee, sugar and milk. To cut the dough into diamond pieces, cut it into parallel strips, then cut those diagonally to make the diamond shaped shakkar pare/shankarpali. You can sprinkle some powdered sugar over the warm, fried shakkar pare/shankarpali if you want to sweeten them further. To determine if the oil is hot enough, put in a small piece of dough and if it comes up immediately, the oil is hot enough.

Monday, November 1, 2010

Halloween and Fall Special - Pumpkin Pie

I had been thinking of baking a pie for a long time, from scratch that is. The last time I baked a pie from scratch was over ten years ago. The opportunity finally knocked on my door this weekend. We were meeting at a friend's place to carve pumpkins and  decided to have a potluck. So, I jumped at the opportunity and picked up the request to bake a pumpkin pie. I must have referred to various websites and read several reviews and almost all the recipes had similar ingredients. So I finally decided to forge ahead and try my own recipe. I referred to the "Baking with Julia Child" book to prepare my crust and then referred to the the recipe on the pumpkin pie can for the filling. The house smelt so amazing, it was difficult to resist tasting a piece before heading out. The pie was a big hit and the crust was tasty and flaky. This was the first recipe that I referred to the Julia Child book for, and the pie crust turned out great.

For the Pie Crust
1 1/4 cup + 2 tbsp all purpose flour
1/4 tsp salt
3/4 cup butter which is the same as 3/4 stick cold butter - cut this into 1/2 inch squares
1/4 cup ice cold water

For the Filling
1 15 ounce can -100% pumpkin puree
3 eggs
1/2 cup evaporated milk
1 tsp cinnamon powder
1/2 tsp ginger powder
1/4 tsp clove powder
1/4 cup toasted pecans
3/4 cup sugar

To make the pie crust
Mix the flour and salt. Next cut the butter into the dough till the dough turns into a coarse textured mixture and the butter is well mixed in. The butter should be cold and not melt while mixing it into the flour, so it needs to be a speedy process. You can use a fork if mixing by hand or the food processor if needed. Then add the cold water a little at a time, till the dough just comes together in a ball. Pat this and bring it together in a ball. Then wrap in plastic wrap and cool for at least 2 hours. I let it be in the fridge overnight.  At least an hour before you want to bake the pie, roll out the dough into a disc to cover a 9 inch pie dish, with about an inch of overhang.  Line the dough around the pie dish and cut the dough that comes out of the dish. Then, you can shape the edge or crimp it to decorate the pie crust. Put this back in the fridge to cool for another 1 hour at the least.

To make the pie
Preheat your oven to 350F. Cover your pie crust with a tin foil and add beans to the fill the pie dish and bake this for about 10 minutes. Then remove the beans and the foil and bake for another 5-10 minutes till the crust starts to change color and brown a little.

Pie Filling
Meanwhile prepare the pie filling. Mix the sugar with the spices and set aside. In a bowl beat the eggs till they are well mixed. To this add the pumpkin puree, milk and the sugar with the spices. Mix it all well. Crush the toasted pecans with your hand.

Take the pre-baked crust and add a layer of the pecans to the base. Next pour the filling into the pie crust and bake the pie for about 40-50 minutes. I baked the pie for about 40 minutes at 350 F and then cranked up the temperature to 375F and baked it for another 5 minutes. The pie is done, when a knife inserted in it comes out clean.

Let it cool and serve it topped with whipped cream

To roast the pecans, heat the oven to 350F.  Place the pecans in a baking tin and bake for 5 minutes or more till you get the toasted pecan smell. Stir them around so that they don't burn. The eggs do not need to be beaten till frothy, just enough so that they are well mixed. Sprinkle a little flour on the rolling surface before you roll out the pie crust. Roll it out from the center to the edge and move it clockwise as you roll it so that the crust is rolled out in similar thickness. Use your rolling pin to lift the crust onto your pie dish. Once the rolled out pie crust has been cooled and rested for at least an hour, you can let it warm up for a few minutes before starting the baking process. Prick the center of your pie crust a few times if need be with a fork so that it doesn't bubble up.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Chiwda - Savory Dish made with Pressed Rice

Continuing on the theme of items made at home during Diwali, another staple is the "Poha Chiwda". Pohe/Poha is pressed rice. The one I use for making Chiwda is the thin version though. The thick one is used to make the breakfast dish "Pohe". This is a very easy recipe, especially if you use the microwave for assistance. I do make it during the rest of the year too. It is just the perfect accompaniment with a nice cup of afternoon tea and definitely makes a healthy snack, especially my low fat version.

6 cups thin poha
2 tbsps oil
1/8 tsp turmeric
10-12 curry leaves
1/8 tsp mustard seeds
1/8 tsp jeera seeds
1 tbsp sesame seeds
2-3 green chillies, sliced
pinch of hing
1/2 cup peanuts
1/4 cup dall/daliya/roasted gram
1/4 cup dry coconut slices
2-3 tbsp raisins
salt to taste
1 tsp sugar
pinch of citric acid

Roast the poha till it is crispy. The color doesn't need to change. The texture will change and it will become crispy and crumble easily when crushed. The poha starts curling up a bit as it gets crispier. I generally roast the poha in the microwave. Start with heating it for 2 minutes at a times and then reduce this to 1 minute and then 30 seconds as it is roasted. Stir it in between to avoid heat from being concentrated on one patch. Keep a close eye on it to avoid burning as it gets closer to being completely done.
Mix the citric acid, sugar and salt together and sprinkle it on the warm roasted poha and mix it togther so that the poha is well coated. In a pan large enough to hold the poha, heat the oil. To this add the mustard seeds. Once they crackle, add the jeera, hing, curry leaves, chillies, peanuts, and roasted gram. Fry the peanuts  and gram they turn start changing color. Add the sesame seeds, coconut slices and then roast these for another minute. Then add the turmeric, raisins and the seasoned poha. Stir all the ingredients well so that all of the poha is coated with the seasoning and turns a light yellow color. If you feel that the oil is less compared to the quantity of poha, you can add a little more oil to the pan before adding the poha. Cook this for a couple of minutes. Taste and adjust the salt and sugar as needed. Store in an airtight container after it cools down completely. This will last a few weeks and doesn't need to be stored in the fridge.

You can serve this with a few slices of onion with some lime squeezed over it. The combination tastes fantastic.

Check for the poha variety before you buy it. Do no use thick poha, the taste will not be the same. You can substitute red chillies for the green ones. Use 4-5 if using red ones. If a small quantity of turmeric you are using is sufficient to impart the yellow color, use a smaller amount. Adjust it as needed. Do not add more than 2-3 pinches, as turmeric has an overpowering taste. Add the coconut slices before the peanuts and gram turn brown, else they will burn while the coconut is fried. Also, sesame and coconut slices take lesser time to brown, so add them after the peanuts and gram. You can increase the quantity of oil to almost twice the amount noted above for a richer taste.

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Besan Laddoo/Laadoo - A Sweet made from Chickpea Flour

I enjoy the festive season. It starts with Shravan and then there's Ganpati followed by Navrati, Halloween, then Diwali.  And of course, I love  Thanksgiving and Christmas. Every place is decorated and it's a ton of fun. I love the holiday and festive season. I look forward to the many long weekends after August and there are plenty of excuses to have parties, and cook a variety of delicacies. This year has flown by and Halloween and Diwali are right around the corner. I am still coming up with my list of items to make for Diwali. It's an evolving list, with requests coming in every other day. I enjoy the challenge of making something new each year. There are always a few staples though, and one of them is the ever loved "besan laddoo". It always has a special place on the Diwali menu.
I will be posting a few recipes over the next few days that you can try for Diwali this year. Hope you are enjoying the festive season.

1 cup clarified butter/ghee
3 cups besan/chickpea flour
2 and 1/4 cups of powdered sugar
1/2 tsp cardamom powder
3 tbsp raisins

Heat the ghee and besan together in a pan.  Roast the besan till the besan turns light brown. Take care of stir it often so that it doesn't burn. Alternately, you can roast this mixture in the microwave oven. Start with roasting it for about 2 minutes a couple of times and then you can roast it in 1 minute intervals or lesser depending on how poweful your microwave is. It is very important to keep an eye on the besan when using the microwave, as its very easy for it to burn if its kept for a few seconds more than necessary. Once the besan is well roasted, you will notice a lovely aroma. That indicates that the besan is being cooked. Also, the taste will change from raw to a nice roasted taste. The color, smell and taste are great indicators to determine if your besan is well roasted. If it is not, and if you add the sugar, you will not be able to cook the besan further and will be stuck with raw tasting laddoos.
After the mixture cools down slightly where it feels warm, add the cardamom powder, powdered sugar and raisins. The mixture should not be cold, else it will be difficult to incorporate the sugar. Mix it well till all the sugar is incorporated into the besan. Then take a handful of the mixture and roll it between the palms of your hands to roll it into small balls. Store in an airtight container. I generally store them in the fridge to ensure that they do not spoil, however they do not last for too long.

This recipe makes about 20-25 small sized laddoos, about 1.5 inches in diameter. Do not use confectioner's sugar. If you do not find powdered sugar, you can grind regular sugar in the blender till it is fine and use it. If you add the sugar when the besan is still being heated or is too hot, it will melt and turn into a syrup and the texture of the laddoos may get spoilt. The sugar should be added when the mixture is warm and can be touched without burning your hands. You can roll the laddoos when it's warm or when the besan and sugar mixture is at room temperature.